Family of microcontroller

Family Of Microcontroller
#Lecture  04 Microcontroller Family  ( 8051 Microcontroller, PIC, ARM, Motorola )


Before I explain about Family Of Microcontroller Let’s get start with introduction of Microcontroller

What Is Microcontroller ?

A Microcontroller is an IC (Integrated Circuit) that consist CPU, memory, I/O ports, Serial ports, Timers, Interrupts, and Clock circuits in a single chip. But it is Used for some specific applications.

So we can say that “A microcontroller is a microprocessor with integrated peripherals”. Microcontroller consists of all features that are found in microprocessors with additional built-in ROM, RAM, I/O ports, Serial ports, Timers, Interrupts, and Clock circuits. It is a programmable device mostly used in embedded systems

Family of Microcontroller

There are so many microcontroller are available in microcontroller family these are 8051, PIC, ARM, etc

8051 microcontroller

In 1981, Intel introduced an 8-bit microcontroller called the 8051 Microcontroller. It is based on Harvard architecture and it is used as an embedded system. It is fabricate using VLSI technology. There are different types of microcontrollers existing in the market now a day those are 4-bit, 8-bit, 64-bit & 128-bit

Feature Of 8051 Microcontroller

  • 4KB bytes on-chip program memory (ROM)
  • 128 bytes on-chip data memory (RAM)
  • Four register banks ( Bank 0- Bank 3)
  • 128 user defined software flags
  • 8-bit bidirectional data bus
  • 16-bit unidirectional address bus
  • 32 general purpose registers each of 8-bit
  • 2- sixteen bit Timer/Counter ( Timer 0 and Timer 1)
  • Three internal and two external Interrupts
  • 32 bidirectional I/O lines arranged as four 8-bit port ( port 0 – port 3)
  • 16-bit program counter and data pointer
  • Direct bit and byte addressability
  • 8051 may also have a number of special features such as UARTs, ADC, Op-amp, etc.
  • The other family member of 8051 microcontroller are 8052 and 8031 microcontrollers.

PIC Microcontroller

  • PIC stands for Peripheral Interface Microcontroller
  • PIC microcontroller was developed in 1993 by Microchip Technology.
  • PIC microcontrollers are the worlds smallest microcontrollers that can be programmed to carry out a huge range of tasks.
  • It is based on Harvard memory architecture.
  • It is basically RISC microcontroller.
  • These microcontrollers are very fast and easy to execute a program compared with other microcontrollers. 
  • It is controlled by software and programmed in such a way that it performs different tasks and controls a generation line.
  • PIC microcontrollers are used in different new applications such as smartphones, audio accessories, computer control systems, alarm systems, embedded systems, etc. 
  • There are many PICs available in the market ranging from PIC16F84 to PIC16F887.
  • It is programmed and simulated by a circuit-wizard software.
  • PIC microcontrollers are very popular due to their ease of programming, wide availability, easy to interfacing with other peripherals, low cost, large user base and serial programming capability (reprogramming with flash memory),  etc.
  • The main features of PIC microcontrollers are RAM, flash memory, Timers/Counters, EEPROM, I/O Ports, USART, CCP (Capture/Compare/PWM module), SSP, Comparator, ADC, PSP(parallel slave port), LCD and ICSP (In Circuit Serial Programming).
  • The 8-bit PIC microcontroller is classified into four types on the basis of internal architecture such as Base Line PIC, Mid Range PIC, Enhanced Mid Range PIC and PIC18.stands for

ARM Microcontroller

  • The ARM stands for Advanced RISC machine .
  • It was first introduced by the Acron computers organization  in 1987.
  • ARM makes 32-bit and 64-bit RISC multi-core processors.
  • The ARM microcontrollers are cost sensitive and high performance devices which are used in a wide range of application such as  industrial  instrument control systems, wireless networking and sensors and automotive system etc.
  • The ARM is a family of the microcontroller developed by the different manufacturers such as ST microelectronics, Motorola and so on. 
  • The ARM microcontroller architecture come with a few different versions such as ARMv1, ARMv2 etc and each one has its own advantage and disadvantages.
  • The ARM cortex microcontroller is an advanced microcontroller in the ARM family, which is developed by the ARMv7 architecture.

Motorola 68HC11

  • The 68HC11 (6811 or HC11 for short) is an 8-bit microcontroller (µC) family introduced by Motorola in 1984.
  • It descended from the Motorola 6800 microprocessor by way of the 6801.
  •  It is a CISC (complex instruction set computer) microcontroller.
  • The 68HC11 devices are more powerful and more expensive than the 68HC08 microcontrollers.
  • It is used in automotive applications, barcode readers, hotel card key writers, amateur robotics, and various other embedded systems. 
  • The MC68HC11A8 was the first microcontroller to include CMOS EEPROM.

AVR Microcontroller

  • AVR is another member of microcontroller family.
  • It is developed since 1996 by Atmel and acquired by Microchip Technology in 2016.
  • It is an 8-bit RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) architecture microcontroller.

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