Difference between Microprocessor and Microcontroller

Lecture 03 Difference b/w Microprocessor & Microcontroller | Microprocessor vs Microcontroller Hindi

What Is Microprocessor ?

A microprocessor is an integrated circuit that consist Only CPU (Central Processing Unit). It consists of an ALU, control unit and many registers, Where ALU performs arithmetic and logical operations on the data received from an input device or memory.

Control unit controls the instructions and flow of data within the computer and, number of registers like Register B, Register C, Register D, Register E, Register H, Register L, and accumulator.

Block diagram of 8086 microprocessor

What Is Microcontroller ?

Microcontroller is a microprocessor based integrated peripherals. It contain CPU, ROM, RAM, timers, counters, I/O ports, ADC, DAC, serial communication all functional block on a single chip, which make it a complete system.

Microcontroller is dedicated to performing a particular task and execute one specific application. It is specially designed circuits for embedded applications and is widely used in automatically controlled electronic devices. In microcontroller you cannot modify the size of RAM, ROM and other components. Once a controller is designed the structure is fixed. So, the structure of the microcontroller is not flexible.

Components of Microcontroller


Some Key Difference between Microprocessor and Microcontroller

  • Microprocessor consists of only a Central Processing Unit, whereas Micro Controller contains a Memory, I/O ports, timers, counters other peripherals along with the CPU or processor.
  • Microprocessor is used in Personal Computers whereas Micro Controller is used in an embedded system.
  • Microprocessor uses an external bus to interface to RAM, ROM, and other peripherals, on the other hand, Microcontroller uses an internal controlling bus.
  • Microprocessors are based on Von Neumann model Micro controllers are based on Harvard architecture
  • Microprocessor structure is flexible. Microcontroller structure of the is not flexible means in microcontroller you cannot modify the size of RAM, ROM and other components. Once a controller is designed the structure is fixed.

Both ICs have different applications and have their own advantages and disadvantages. They can be differentiated in terms of Applications, structure, internal parameters, power consumption, and cost.

So, Let’s see the difference between the microprocessor and microcontroller in detail.


Microprocessor vs Microcontroller

MicroprocessorMicrocontroller
1) Microprocessor is the heart of Computer system. Micro Controller is the heart of an embedded system.
2) It is only a stand alone processor, so memory and I/O components need to be connected externally. Micro Controller has a processor along with internal memory and I/O components.
3) Memory and I/O has to be connected externally, so the circuit becomes large. Memory and I/O are already present, and the internal circuit is small.
4) You can’t use it in compact systems. You can use it in compact systems.
5) Cost of the entire system is high. Cost of the entire system is low.
6) Due to external components, the total power consumption is high. Therefore, it is not ideal for the devices running on stored power like batteries. As external components are low, total power consumption is less. So it can be used with devices running on stored power like batteries.
7) Most of the microprocessors do not have power saving features.Most of the microcontrollers offer power-saving mode.
8) It is mainly used in personal computers.It is used mainly in a washing machine, MP3 players, and embedded systems.
9) Microprocessor has a smaller number of registers, so more operations are memory-based.Microcontroller has more register. Hence the programs are easier to write.
10) Microprocessors are based on Von Neumann model.Micro controllers arc based on Harvard architecture.
11) It is a central processing unit (CPU) on a single silicon-based integrated chip.It is a byproduct of the development of microprocessors with a CPU along with other peripherals.
12) It has no RAM, ROM, Input-Output units, timers, and other peripherals on the chip.It has a CPU along with RAM, ROM, and other peripherals embedded on a single chip.
13) It uses an external bus to interface to RAM, ROM, and other peripherals.It uses an internal controlling bus.
14) The advantage of the microprocessor is that it has a flexible structure.Once a controller is designed the structure is fixed. So, the structure of the microcontroller is not flexible.
15) The program for the microprocessor can be changed for different applications.While in the case of the microcontroller once it is designed, the program is common for that application.
16) The common peripheral interface for the microprocessor is USB, UART, and high-speed Ethernet.the microcontroller peripheral interface is I2C, SPI, and UART.
17) Microprocessor-based systems can run at a very high speed because of the technology involved. The microprocessors are run at higher clock speeds range of 1 GHz to 4 GHz.Microcontroller based systems run up to 200MHz or more depending on the architecture. While in the case of microcontroller, high clock speed is not required 1 MHz to 300 MHz.
18) It’s used for general purpose applications that allow you to handle loads of data.It’s used for application-specific systems.
19) It’s complex and expensive, with a large number of instructions to process.It’s simple and inexpensive with less number of instructions to process.
20) The structure of the microprocessor is flexible.The structure of the microcontroller is not flexible.
Key differences between Microcontroller and Microprocessor

Applications Of Microprocessor And Microcontroller

Application Of MicroprocessorApplication Of Microcontroller

1) Calculators
2) Accounting system
3) Games machine
4) Complex industrial controllers
5) Traffic light
6) Control data
7) Military applications
8) Defense systems
9) Computation systems
10) Computers
11) TV
1) Mobile phones
2) Automobiles
3) CD/DVD players
4) Washing machines
5) Cameras
6) Security alarms
7) Keyboard controllers
8) Microwave oven
9) Watches
10) Mp3 players

MCQ Series and Topics


FAQ

What are application of Microprocessor?

Calculators, Accounting system, Games machine, Complex industrial controllers, Traffic light, Control data, Military applications, Defense systems, Computation systems, Computers, TV

What are the application Of Microcontroller?

Mobile phones, Automobiles, CD/DVD players, Washing machines, Cameras, Security alarms, Keyboard controllers, Microwave oven, Watches, Mp3 players

Is arm a microprocessor or microcontroller?

Arm is microcontroller.

What is difference between Microcontroller and Microprocessor

Microprocessor consists of only a Central Processing Unit, whereas Micro Controller contains a Memory, I/O ports, timers, counters other peripherals along with the CPU or processor.
Microprocessor is used in Personal Computers whereas Micro Controller is used in an embedded system.
Microprocessor uses an external bus to interface to RAM, ROM, and other peripherals, on the other hand, Microcontroller uses an internal controlling bus.

8086 Microprocessor Pin Configuration

8086 was the first 16-bit microprocessor available in 40-pin DIP (Dual Inline Package) chip. Let us now discuss in detail the pin configuration of a 8086 Microprocessor.

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Introduction of 8086 Microprocessor

  • Intel 8086 was the first 16-bit HMOS microprocessor.
  • All the limitation of 8-bit microprocessor is overcome by 16-bit microprocessor.
  • It is a more powerful processor in term of advanced architecture, more processing capability, large memory addressing capability and more powerful instruction set.
  • It is available in 40 pin DIP chip (40 pin IC).
  • It uses a +5V DC supply for its operation.
  • The 8086 uses 20-line address bus. It has a 16-bit data bus.
  • The 20 line of the address bus operate in multiplexed mode. The 16-low order address bus lines have been multiplexed with data and 4 high-order address bus lines have been multiplexed with status signals.

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Difference between Microprocessor and Microcontroller

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8086 Pin Diagram

8086 was the first 16-bit microprocessor available in 40-pin DIP (Dual Inline Package) chip. Let us now discuss in detail the pin configuration of a 8086 Microprocessor.

A16/S3, A17/S4, A18/S5, A19/S6 :  High order address bus. These are multiplexed with status signals. These lines are high for memory related operation and low for I/O related operation. These are multiplexed with status signal S3 to S4 respectively. The combination of S3 ,S4 determine that which part of memory is to be accessed. Where S6 is always low logic and reserved for future use. S5 for interrupt status

A17/S4A16/S3FUNCTION
00Extra segment access
01Stack segment access
10Code segment access
11Data segment access

•BHE/S7 : BHE signal is enable when data bit are 16 bit it transfer of data over higher order data bus. If it is 1 then data is less than 8 bit.

S2, S1, S0 : Status pins. All are active low pin. These are used by the 8288 bus controller for generating all the memory and I/O operation access control signals. Any change in S2, S1, S0 indicates the beginning of a bus cycle

QS1,QS0 : Queue Status. These signals indicate the status of the internal 8086 instruction queue according to the table shown below

Power supply and frequency signals

It uses 5V DC supply at VCC pin 40, and uses ground at VSS pin 1 and 20 for its operation.

Clock signal

Clock signal is provided through Pin-19. It provides timing to the processor for operations. Its frequency is different for different versions, i.e. 5MHz, 8MHz and 10MHz.

Address/data bus

AD0-AD15. These are 16 address/data bus. AD0-AD7 carries low order byte data and AD8AD15 carries higher order byte data. During the first clock cycle, it carries 16-bit address and after that it carries 16-bit data.

Address/status bus

A16-A19/S3-S6. These are the 4 address/status buses. During the first clock cycle, it carries 4-bit address and later it carries status signals.

S7/BHE

BHE stands for Bus High Enable. It is available at pin 34 and used to indicate the transfer of data using data bus D8-D15. This signal is low during the first clock cycle, thereafter it is active.

Read($\overline{RD}$)

It is available at pin 32 and is used to read signal for Read operation.

Ready

It is available at pin 22. It is an acknowledgement signal from I/O devices that data is transferred. It is an active high signal. When it is high, it indicates that the device is ready to transfer data. When it is low, it indicates wait state.

RESET

It is available at pin 21 and is used to restart the execution. It causes the processor to immediately terminate its present activity. This signal is active high for the first 4 clock cycles to RESET the microprocessor.

INTR

It is available at pin 18. It is an interrupt request signal, which is sampled during the last clock cycle of each instruction to determine if the processor considered this as an interrupt or not.

NMI

It stands for non-maskable interrupt and is available at pin 17. It is an edge triggered input, which causes an interrupt request to the microprocessor.

$\overline{TEST}$

This signal is like wait state and is available at pin 23. When this signal is high, then the processor has to wait for IDLE state, else the execution continues.

MN/MX

It stands for Minimum/Maximum and is available at pin 33. It indicates what mode the processor is to operate in; when it is high, it works in the minimum mode and vice-versa.

INTA

It is an interrupt acknowledgement signal and id available at pin 24. When the microprocessor receives this signal, it acknowledges the interrupt.

ALE

It stands for address enable latch and is available at pin 25. A positive pulse is generated each time the processor begins any operation. This signal indicates the availability of a valid address on the address/data lines.

DEN

It stands for Data Enable and is available at pin 26. It is used to enable Transreceiver 8286. The transreceiver is a device used to separate data from the address/data bus.

DT/R

It stands for Data Transmit/Receive signal and is available at pin 27. It decides the direction of data flow through the transreceiver. When it is high, data is transmitted out and vice-versa.

M/IO

This signal is used to distinguish between memory and I/O operations. When it is high, it indicates I/O operation and when it is low indicates the memory operation. It is available at pin 28.

WR

It stands for write signal and is available at pin 29. It is used to write the data into the memory or the output device depending on the status of M/IO signal.

HLDA

It stands for Hold Acknowledgement signal and is available at pin 30. This signal acknowledges the HOLD signal.

HOLD

This signal indicates to the processor that external devices are requesting to access the address/data buses. It is available at pin 31.

LOCK

When this signal is active, it indicates to the other processors not to ask the CPU to leave the system bus. It is activated using the LOCK prefix on any instruction and is available at pin 29.

RQ/GT1 and RQ/GT0

These are the Request/Grant signals used by the other processors requesting the CPU to release the system bus. When the signal is received by CPU, then it sends acknowledgment. RQ/GT0 has a higher priority than RQ/GT1.

FAQ

Q: What is the 8086 microprocessor?

The 8086 microprocessor is a 16-bit microprocessor chip developed by Intel in the late 1970s. It was the first member of the x86 processor family and marked a significant milestone in the history of personal computers.

Q: When was the 8086 microprocessor released?

The 8086 microprocessor was released by Intel in 1978.

What is the architecture of the 8086 microprocessor?

The 8086 microprocessor follows the complex instruction set computer (CISC) architecture. It has a 16-bit data bus, a 20-bit address bus, and supports a wide range of instructions.

What are the key features of the 8086 microprocessor?

The key features of the 8086 microprocessor include its 16-bit architecture, segmented memory model, support for 1 megabyte of memory, instruction pipelining, and a rich set of instructions.

Q: What is the difference between the 8086 and 8088 microprocessors?

The 8086 and 8088 microprocessors are very similar, but the main difference lies in the external data bus width. The 8086 has a 16-bit data bus, while the 8088 has an 8-bit data bus. This difference affected the performance and cost of systems using these processors.

Q: What is the maximum memory capacity supported by the 8086 microprocessor?

The 8086 microprocessor can address up to 1 megabyte (2^20 bytes) of memory. However, due to its segmented memory model, it requires additional programming techniques to fully utilize the entire memory space efficiently.

Q: What is the segmented memory model in the 8086 microprocessor?

The segmented memory model in the 8086 microprocessor divides the memory into multiple segments of up to 64 kilobytes each. It uses a 16-bit segment register and a 16-bit offset to form a 20-bit physical address, allowing access to a total of 1 megabyte of memory.

Q: What is instruction pipelining in the 8086 microprocessor?

Instruction pipelining is a technique used in the 8086 microprocessor to improve instruction execution speed. It divides the execution of instructions into multiple stages, allowing multiple instructions to be processed simultaneously. This overlapping of instruction execution stages improves overall performance.

Q: What operating systems were compatible with the 8086 microprocessor?

The 8086 microprocessor was compatible with various operating systems, including MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System), PC DOS, and early versions of Windows. It also served as the foundation for the x86 architecture, which is still widely used today.

Q: What is the legacy of the 8086 microprocessor?

The 8086 microprocessor played a crucial role in the development of personal computers. Its architecture served as the foundation for the x86 processor family, which has evolved over the years and continues to dominate the market. Many modern software applications and operating systems are designed to run on x86-based systems, ensuring the lasting impact of the 8086 microprocessor.

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