What is Microcontroller ?
Microcontroller is a combination of two words micro and controller, Micro means small in size and controller means a device that can control the operation of any system. So we can say that a microcontroller is a microprocessor with integrated peripherals.
- A microcontroller is a system on chip it has CPU, I/O ports, Timers, Counters, RAM,ROM on a single chip.
- In 1981, Intel introduced an 8-bit microcontroller called the 8051.
- Originally, 8051 Microcontrollers were developed using N-MOS Technology but the use of battery powered devices and their low power consumption, Now a day CMOS Technology (which is famous for its low power consumption).
- It is widely used in an embedded system, consumer electronics, automotive systems, robotics and security cameras.
- The peripheral are integrated into a single chip , the over all system cost is very low.
- The size of the product is small as compare to the microprocessor based system thus very handy .
- The microcontroller based system is more reliable.
- MC based system is easy to maintain.
- All these features available in 40 pin IC.
Classification of Microcontroller
Classification Of Microcontroller According to the Number of Bits
According to bits the microcontroller are 8-bits, 16-bits, and 32-bits microcontroller.
- 8 Bit Microcontroller: In 8 bit microcontroller the internal bus is 8 bit then the ALU performs arithmetic and logic operations. Example: Intel 8031/8051.
- 16 Bit Microcontroller: In 16 bit microcontroller executes with greater accuracy and performance in contrast to 8-bit. So 16 bit microcontroller performance is greater compared to 8-bit. 8-bit microcontrollers can only use 8 bits, So its data range of 0×00 – 0xFF (0-255) for every cycle. Where as 16-bit microcontrollers with their data range of 0×0000 – 0xFFFF (0-65535) for every cycle. Example: Intel 8096.
- 32 Bit Microcontroller: In 32 bit microcontroller uses the 32-bit instructions to carry
out any arithmetic and logic operations. It is employed mainly in automatically controlled appliances such as office machines, implantable medical appliances, etc. Example: PIC3X
Classification Of Microcontroller According to Memory Devices
According to memory devices Microcontroller are divided into two types.
- External Memory Microcontroller
- Embedded Memory Microcontroller
- External Memory Microcontroller: In this type of microcontroller all functional blocks are not present on a single chip but if we want program memory then externally interfaced using an interfacing circuits and this interfacing circuit is called the glue circuit and the microcontroller is called external memory microcontroller. Example: 8031 has no program memory on the chip is an external memory microcontroller.
- Embedded Memory Microcontroller: In this type of microcontroller all functional blocks are present on a single chip is called an embedded microcontroller. Example: 8051 is the best example of embedded memory microcontroller because It having program & data memory, I/O ports, serial communication, counters and timers and interrupts on a single chip.
Classification Of Microcontroller According to Instruction Set
CISC (complex instruction set computer): CISC is stands for Complex Instruction Set Computer. It allows the user to apply one instruction as an alternative to many simple instructions.
RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computers): The RISC stands for Reduced Instruction set Computer. It reduces the operation time by shortening the clock cycle per instruction.
Classification Of Microcontroller According to Memory Architecture
According to Memory Architecture there are two type of Microcontroller
- Harvard Memory Architecture
- Von Neumann Memory Architecture
Harvard Memory Architecture: In Harvard architecture separate storage and signal buses are provided for different set of instructions and data. This architecture has the entire data storage within the CPU and there is no access available for instruction storage as data.
Von Neumann architecture: In Von Neumann architecture, one data path (or bus) is exists for both instruction and data. So, the CPU does only one operation at a time. It either fetches an instruction from memory, or performs read/write operation on data. So both operations (instruction fetch and a data operation) cannot occur simultaneously because they sharing a common bus.
Different Type of Microcontroller
- PIC Stands for Peripheral Interface Controller is a kind of microcontroller components was used in the development of electronics, computer robotics, and similar devices.
- Even though the PIC was produced by Microchip technology and based on hardware computing architecture, here the code and data are placed in separate registers to increase the input and output.
- PIC has a built-in data memory, data bus and dedicated microprocessor for preparing all I/O purposes and methods.
- ARM stands for Advanced RISC Machine.
- It’s the most popular Microcontrollers Programming in the digital embedded system world, and most of the industries prefer only ARM microcontrollers since it consists of significant features to implement products with an excellent appearance.
- It is cost sensitive and high-performance device which has been used in a wide range of application such as Industrial Instrument control systems, wireless networking and sensors, and automotive body systems, etc.
In 1981, Intel introduced an 8-bit microcontroller called the 8051.
It is widely used in an embedded system, consumer electronics, automotive systems, robotics and security cameras.
The peripheral are integrated into a single chip , the over all system cost is very lo
The size of the product is small as compare to the microprocessor based system thus very handy
All these features available in 40 pin IC.
MSP stands for Mixed Signal Processor. It’s the family from Texas Instruments. Built around a 16 -bit CPU.
the MSP is designed for low cost and respectively, low power dissipation embedded statements.
It’s the controller’s appearance is directly related to the 16-bit data bus, and seven addressing modes and the decreased instructions set, which allows a shorter, denser programming code for fast performance.
The Range of Microcontroller is an IC chip that executes programs for controlling other device or machines. It is a micro-device which is used for control of other device machines that’s why it’s called Microcontrollers Programming.